Survey Resources: Definitions

Listed below are definitions of terms used in the survey and study, as defined by a variety of sources.

Electronics

Devices whose primary function is Information (obtaining, storing, managing, or presenting). (Nordman, Bruce, and Marla McWhinney. 2006. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and Low Power Products. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Washington, D.C.: ACEEE.)

Miscellaneous

Any product type not included in any of the major end uses (HVAC, Lighting, Water Heating, Major Appliances, and Electronics). “Other” should be taken as a synonym for Miscellaneous. Miscellaneous is taken to be all building energy consumption (on the load side of the utility meter) that is not covered by any of the major end uses. This includes “overlooked” products — those that serve the broad functions of the major end uses but are not usually included in estimates (e.g. ceiling fans, humidifiers, space heaters). Per above, electronic products as a whole comprise a distinct end use and can no longer be mixed in with miscellaneous products. Miscellaneous products span the range from the very small to the very large, both in electricity consumption and physical size. Examples range from staplers to pool pumps. (Nordman, Bruce, and Marla McWhinney. 2006. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and Low Power Products. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Washington, D.C.: ACEEE.)

Plug Load

A product powered by means of an ordinary AC plug (e.g. 100, 115, or 230 V). Hard-Wired Loads. A product with a direct-wired connection to an AC source. These can have switches or timers between the product and the AC source. (This is often understood to exclude product types included in major end uses.) (Nordman, Bruce, and Marla McWhinney. 2006. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and Low Power Products. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Washington, D.C.: ACEEE.)

Process Energy

Energy consumed in support of a manufacturing, industrial, or commercial process other than conditioning spaces and maintaining comfort and amenities for the occupants of a building. (ASHRAE. (2010). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.)

Process energy is considered to include, but is not limited to, office and general miscellaneous equipment, computers, elevators and escalators, kitchen cooking and refrigeration, laundry washing and drying, lighting exempt from the lighting power allowance (e.g., lighting integral to medical equipment) and other (e.g., waterfall pumps). (U.S. Green Building Council. (2007). LEED for New Construction v2.2 Reference Guide, Third Edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Green Building Council.)

Process Load

The load on a building resulting from the consumption or release of process energy. (ASHRAE. (2010). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.)

Receptacle Power

Receptacle power is power for typical general service loads in the building. Receptacle power includes equipment loads normally served through electrical receptacles, such as office equipment and printers, but does not include either task lighting or equipment used for HVAC purposes. Receptacle power values are slightly higher than the largest hourly receptacle load that is actually modeled because the receptacle power values are modified by the receptacle schedule, which approaches but does not exceed 1.0. Receptacle power is considered an unregulated load; no credit has been offered in the past for savings; identical conditions have been required for both the baseline building and the proposed design. Offering credit for receptacle loads is very difficult due to their temporal nature and because information is not always available on what equipment will go in the building. Tenants also have the ability to plug and unplug devices at their leisure or switch them out for different equipment, adding to the difficulty of assigning credit for promised energy efficiency. (COMNET. 2010. Commercial Buildings Energy Modeling Guidelines and Procedures. Oceanside, CA: Commercial Energy Services Network.)

LEED 25% Process Energy Requirement

The requirement under LEED for New Construction and Major Renovation, Energy and Atmosphere Credit 1, for the baseline energy model to dedicate at least 25% of its total energy (by cost) to process energy. The baseline process energy quantity is to remain unchanged in the design energy model, unless the team pursues an exceptional calculation method (ECM).

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