following list of papers, articles and Web references represents major
contributions to the understanding and development of UFAD technology and
1. Addison, M., and D. Nall. 2001. "Cooling via underfloor air
distribution: Current design issues and analysis options." From: Cooling
Frontiers: The Advanced Edge of Cooling Research and Applications in the Built
Environment. College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Arizona State
2. AEC. 2000. Design Brief: Underfloor air distribution and access floors.
Energy Design Resources website, www.energydesignresources.com. Architectural
Energy Corporation, Boulder, CO. This design brief is an introduction to
underfloor air and access floor systems, and addresses the following topics:
displacement ventilation and hybrid underfloor systems, energy savings and
indoor air quality improvement, access floor system design and construction,
economics of combined underfloor air and access floor systems, comfort and
productivity issues and applications of underfloor air and access floor
3. Akimoto, T., T. Nobe, and Y. Takebayashi. 1995. Experimental study on the
floor-supply displacement ventilation system. ASHRAE Transactions, 101(2).
4. Akimoto, T., Nobe, T., Tanabe, S., and Kimura, K. 1996.
"Experimental study on indoor thermal environment and air quality of the
floor-supply displacement ventilation system." Proceedings, Indoor Air
5. Architectural Institute of Japan. 1993. Proceedings, Symposium on
Floor-Based Air Supply HVAC Systems. Tokyo, October 1 (in Japanese). Useful for
its brief outline of a wide range of subjects contained within nine
presentations on floor-based systems; covering general energy conservation,
indoor conditions, design and operation fundamentals and specific examples of
6. ArchitectureWeek. 2000. "Building for 'Harmony with nature'."
ArchitectureWeek, June 14, http://www.architectureweek.com/2000/0614/building_1-1.html.
7. Arens, E.A., F. Bauman, L. Johnston, and H. Zhang. 1991. "Testing of
localized ventilation systems in a new controlled environment chamber."
Indoor Air, No. 3, pp. 263-281.
8. Arens, E.A., and F.S. Bauman. 1994. "Improving the performance of
task conditioning systems." Proceedings, International Symposium: Issues
on Task-Ambient Conditioning. Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 11 January, pp.
9. Arens, E., M. Fountain, T. Xu, K. Miura, H. Zhang, and F. Bauman. 1995.
"A study of occupant cooling by two types of personally controlled air
movement." Proceedings, Pan Pacific Symposium on Building and Urban
Environmental Conditioning in Asia. Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 16-18
March. This paper presents controlled environment chamber experiments, using
human subjects, on the effectiveness of air movement cooling. Primarily
relevant to residences, the findings are useful in addressing the design of TAC
systems. The desirable air velocities chosen by participants were evaluated
with reference to existing comfort standards, and used to propose a comfort
zone for personally controlled air movement.
10. Argon Corporation. 2002. Product information. Argon Corporation, Naples,
11. Arnold, D. 1990. "Raised floor air distribution -- a case
study." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Pt. 2. Early case study on a
building from design stage through to construction highlights problem areas
such as the construction and sealing of underfloor plenums. Other issues
include how to conceal extract ducts in a building without ceiling voids,
co-ordination of the floor services installation and finishes, and optimum
supply air temperatures.
12. ASHRAE. 1990. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 113-1990, "Method of testing for
room air diffusion." Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
13. ASHRAE. 1992. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, "Thermal environmental
conditions for human occupancy." Atlanta: American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
14. ASHRAE. 1993. Air-Conditioning Systems Design Manual. Atlanta: ASHRAE,
15. ASHRAE. 1996. ASHRAE Guideline 1-1996: The HVAC Commissioning Process.
Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning
16. ASHRAE. 1997. ASHRAE Standard 129-1997, "Measuring air change
effectiveness." Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and
Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
17. ASHRAE. 1999. HVAC Applications volume of the ASHRAE Handbook. Atlanta:
18. ASHRAE. 1999. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1999, "Ventilation for
acceptable indoor air quality." Atlanta: American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
19. ASHRAE. 2000. HVAC Systems and Equipment volume of the ASHRAE Handbook.
Atlanta: ASHRAE, Inc.
20. ASHRAE. 2001. Fundamentals volume of the ASHRAE Handbook. Atlanta:
21. ASHRAE. 2001. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-2001, "Ventilation for
acceptable indoor air quality." Atlanta: American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
22. ASHRAE. 2002. Refrigeration volume of the ASHRAE Handbook. Atlanta:
23. ASTM. 2000. ASTM E779-99: Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate
by Fan Pressurization. American Society for Testing and Material, Philadelphia,
24. Barker, C.T. 1985. "Ensuring insurers work in comfort."
Chartered Mechanical Engineer, November.
25. Barker, C.T., G. Anthony, R. Waters, A. McGregor, and M. Harrold. 1987.
"Lloyd's of London." Air Conditioning: Impact on the Built
Environment. New York: Nichols Publishing Company. A comprehensive study of one
of the earliest buildings to use an underfloor plenum as a services zone.
Discussion ranges from the technical, e.g. thermal performance of the slab, to
the conceptual -e.g. the architecture of air-conditioning.
26. Barnaby, C., Dean, E., Fuller, F., Nall, D., Shelley, T., Wexler, T.,
1980. "Utilizing the thermal mass of structural systems in buildings for
energy conservation and peak power reduction." Shelley, Dean and Fuller,
Architects, Berkeley Solar Group. A comprehensive report on structural systems
and their energy- and power-savings benefit within the context of two North
American climates. The report covers three areas: (1) building sub-systems
related to structural cooling; (2) thermal performance of a prototypical
building comprising the optimum sub-systems; (3) estimated cost and life-cycle
cost analysis for the prototype building.
27. Bauman, F.S., L. Johnston, H. Zhang, and E. Arens. 1991a.
"Performance testing of a floor-based, occupant-controlled office
ventilation system." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 97, Pt. 1. Presents the
results of experiments in a controlled chamber configured to resemble an office
with modular partitions, investigating the effects of supply volume, location,
and direction, supply/return temperature difference, heat load density and
workstation size and layout. Using ASHRAE test methods current in 1991,
overhead supply systems scored a higher performance rating. This paper
concludes the comfort benefits of occupant-control over the local environment
are not adequately addressed in existing performance and comfort standards.
28. Bauman, F.S., K. Heinemeier, H. Zhang, A. Sharag-Eldin, E. Arens, W.
Fisk, D. Faulkner, D. Pih, P. McNeel, and D. Sullivan. 1991b. "Localized
thermal distribution for office buildings; final report-phase I." Center
for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, June, 81
29. Bauman, F.S., G. Brager, E. Arens, A. Baughman, H. Zhang, D. Faulkner,
W. Fisk, and D. Sullivan. 1992. "Localized thermal distribution for office
buildings; final report-phase II." Center for Environmental Design
Research, University of California, Berkeley, December, 220 pp. This report
presents the results of research in five key areas: (1) Survey of industry
perspective on Task Conditioning systems; (2) Laboratory Experiments; (3)
Recommendations to Improve Localized Thermal Distribution System Performance;
(4) Whole Building Energy Simulations; and (5) Building Standards and Codes.
30. Bauman, F.S., and M. McClintock. 1993. "A study of occupant comfort
and workstation performance in PG&E's advanced office systems testbed."
Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley,
May, 135 pp.
31. Bauman, F.S., H. Zhang, E. Arens, and C. Benton. 1993. "Localized
comfort control with a desktop task conditioning system: laboratory and field
measurements." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 99, Pt. 2. This paper presents
the results of both laboratory and field measurements investigating the thermal
performance of desktop task conditioning systems. Interesting for its
consideration of the thermal conditions resulting from a range nozzle sizes.
32. Bauman, F., E. Arens, M. Fountain, C. Huizenga, K. Miura, T. Xu, T.
Akimoto, H. Zhang, D. Faulkner, W. Fisk, and T. Borgers. 1994. "Localized
thermal distribution for office buildings; final report - phase III."
Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley,
July, 115 pp. This report presents the results of research completed during
phase III of the localized thermal distribution (LTD) project, covering three
task areas: (1) Whole-building Energy Simulations; (2) Field Studies; and (3)
LTD Engineering Applications Guide Outline. Includes comprehensive field
studies on two buildings, located in Phoenix, Arizona and San Ramon California.
33. Bauman, F.S., E.A. Arens, S. Tanabe, H. Zhang, and A. Baharlo. 1995.
"Testing and optimizing the performance of a floor-based task conditioning
system." Energy and Buildings, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 173-186. A
comprehensive report of controlled environment chamber experiments studying the
thermal performance of a floor-based TAC system. Discussion includes a summary
of research to date, use of the latest thermal manikin model, analysis
involving the effect of supply volume, grille direction and Archimedes number
of air supply jets, and concise design recommendations for improving TAC system
34. Bauman, F., editor. 1995. "Proceedings: Workshop on task/ambient
conditioning systems in commercial buildings, San Francisco, CA, 4-5 May
1995." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of California,
Berkeley, October. A collection of literature from contributors to this
workshop. A broad range of industry interests are represented, from
manufacturers to commercial and academic research organizations.
35. Bauman, F., and Akimoto, T. 1996. "Field study of a desktop task
conditioning system in PG&E's advanced office systems testbed." Center
for Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley.
36. Bauman, F.S. 1996. "Task/ambient conditioning systems: engineering
and application guidelines." Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on
Energy and Environment: Towards the year 2000. Capri, Italy, 1996. A concise,
informative introduction to the concept of TAC systems in buildings. Provides a
system description, and addresses issues such as benefits, and how to achieve
them, limitations (real and perceived) and technology demands.
37. Bauman, F.S., and E.A. Arens. 1996. "Task/ambient conditioning
systems: engineering and application guidelines." Center for Environmental
Design Research, University of California, Berkeley. A comprehensive report on
TAC, expanding on information in the previous paper (see above reference),
including detailed discussions on issues such as system configurations,
components and mechanisms, room air distribution, relevant standards and codes,
energy use, design and construction guidelines and system costs.
38. Bauman, F.S., T.G. Carter, A.V. Baughman, and E.A. Arens. 1998.
"Field study of the impact of a desktop task/ambient conditioning system
in office buildings." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 104 (1), pp. 125-142. This
paper presents field measurements, including subjective surveys and physical
monitoring, carried out in three office buildings in San Francisco. The study
is useful for its range of comparative units of analyses, measurements were
taken in the buildings before and after installation of the TAC systems;
included a control group of workers without TAC units; and follow-up tests
performed three months later were repeated under three different room
39. Bauman, F., P. Pecora, and T. Webster. 1999a. "How low can you go?
Air flow performance of low-height underfloor plenums." Center for the
Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, October. This
comprehensive report summarizes results from full-scale testing of pressurized
underfloor plenum configurations and their influence on the uniform
distribution of supply air to floor grilles. Useful technical recommendations
are cited such as minimum plenum heights, the effect of obstructions or
removing floor panels, and plenum inlet conditions.
40. Bauman, F., K. Tsuzuki, H. Zhang, T. Stockwell, C. Huizenga, E. Arens,
and A. Smart. 1999b. "Experimental Comparison of Three Individual Control
Devices: Thermal Manikin Tests." Final Report. Center for Environmental
Design Research, University of California, Berkeley.
41. Bauman, F. 1999. "Giving occupants what they want: guidelines for
implementing personal environmental control in your building." Center for
the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, April. Concise
description of the principles of an underfloor TAC system, potential benefits,
guidelines on how to achieve them and ongoing work addressing current barriers
(real and perceived) to widespread use of the technology. Incorporates recent
research findings and outlines areas for future study.
42. Bauman, F., K. Powell, R. Bannon, A. Lee, and T. Webster. 2000-a.
Underfloor air technology website: www.cbe.berkeley.edu/underfloorair. Center
for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley, December.
43. Bauman, F., V. Inkarojrit, and H. Zhang. 2000-b. "Laboratory test
of the Argon personal air-conditioning system (APACS)." Center for
Environmental Design Research, University of California, Berkeley, April.
44. Bauman, F., and T. Webster. 2001. "Outlook for Underfloor Air
Distribution." ASHRAE Journal, June, pp.18-25. This paper first offers a
system description, discusses the benefits of underfloor technology, and then
lists and discusses the "technology needs" or the current barriers to
its widespread adoption.
45. Beck, P. 1993. "Intelligent design passes IQ test."
Consulting-Specifying Engineer, January. Case study of the West Bend Mutual
Insurance Company Headquarters, Wisconsin, detailing the pressurized underfloor
HVAC system and environmentally-responsive work station control modules.
Emphasizes the benefits of integrated system design, and relationships between
improved staff productivity and a more comfortable work environment.
46. Brager, G.S., M.E. Fountain, C.C. Benton, E.A. Arens, and F.S. Bauman.
1993. "A comparison of methods for assessing thermal sensation and
acceptability in the field." Proceedings, Thermal Comfort: Past, Present
and Future, ed. Nigel Oseland. British Research Establishment, Watford, United
Kingdom, 9-10 June.
47. Brager, G.S., and R.J. de Dear. 1998. "Thermal adaptation in the
built environment: A literature review." Energy and Buildings, 27, pp.
48. Brager, G.S., and R.J. de Dear. 2000. "A standard for natural
ventilation." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 42, No. 10, October, pp. 21-28.
49. Brill, M., and S. Margulis. 1984. "Using office design to increase
productivity." Buffalo, NY: Buffalo Organization for Social and
50. Brown, M. and Scott, L. 2000. "Underfloor Air Conditioning Systems
- Principles and Applications." Carrier Global Engineering Conference, May
2000, June. Focusing on description and analysis of commercial systems
employing turbulent mixed flow outlets and displacement, this paper includes
case studies for applications such as an airport terminal, aquatic center,
university auditorium, trading floors within high-rise office buildings and a
51. Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) International and the
ULI-the Urban Land Institute. 1999. What office tenants want: 1999 BOMA/ULI
office tenant survey report. Washington, D.C.: BOMA International and the ULI-the
Urban Land Institute. This paper presents a survey of 1829 office tenants in
the U.S. and Canada. In the survey, the office tenants were asked to rate the
importance of 53 building features and amenities, and to report how satisfied
they are with their current office space for those same categories.
52. California Energy Commission. 2001. Nonresidential Manual for Compliance
with California's 2001 Energy Efficiency Standards. Publication Number:
P400-01-005, California Energy Commission.
53. CBE. 2002. Center for the Built Environment website:
www.cbe.berkeley.edu. Center for the Built Environment, University of
54. Cho, S.H., Kim, W.T., Na, K.T., Chung, K.S., 1998. "Experimental
study on thermal characteristics of personal environment module (PEM)
system." Proceedings, Second International Conference on Human-Environment
System, Yokohama 1998. This paper presents the results of experiments, carried
out in a test chamber, comparing the thermal performance of PEM and underfloor
systems. The relative performance of each system is considered in 3 zones
-above, below and around the desk area- concluding the PEM provides a more
advantageous overall thermal environment, improving as flow rate increases. The
effect of heat generated by the system motor is also addressed.
55. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 1999. "Guidelines for Creating High
Performance Green Buildings." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection. This study looks at green systems (including site, enclosure,
mechanical, interiors and materials) as well as the "green design and
construction process." It includes 12 case studies.
56. Cornell University. 1999. "Case study: 901 Cherry - Gap
Ecotecture site, Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell
University, Ithaca, NY.
57. Crockett, J. 2002. "Undervalued? Underfloor air systems have been
around for quite some time not, but is the market embracing the technology or
discounting it as a specialty solution?" Consulting-Specifying Engineer,
January. This article looks at the current status of Underfloor systems in the
marketplace. Crockett discusses reasons why Underfloor is still not commonly
used, some of its benefits, and available web resources.
58. Croome, D.J., and D. Rollason. 1988. "Freshness, ventilation and
temperature in offices." Proceedings of CIB Conference Healthy Buildings
88, 5-8 September, Stockholm.
59. Daly, A. 2002. "Underfloor air distribution: Lessons learned."
ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 44, No. 5, May, pp. 21-24. Presents three strategies for
capturing as many benefits of underfloor air distribution as possible while
keeping the initial cost to a minimum: minimize the ductwork in the plenum,
prevent plenum leakage, and don't oversize airflows.
60. Dasher, C., A. Potter, and K. Stum. 2002. "Commissioning to meet
green expectations." Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. website: www.peci.org.
61. David, J. 1984. "Under floor air conditioning." Journal of the
Chartered Institution of Building Services, August.
62. de Dear, R., and G.S. Brager. 1998. "Developing an adaptive model
of thermal comfort and preference." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 104 (1).
Under the hypothesis that contextual factors and past thermal history modify
building occupants' thermal expectations and preferences, a worldwide thermal
comfort database was compiled examining thermal sensation, acceptability and
preference from observations in 160 buildings. The results formed the basis of
a proposal for a variable indoor temperature standard.
63. Drake, P., P. Mill, and M. Demeter. 1991. "Implications of
user-based environmental control systems: three case studies."
Proceedings, ASHRAE Indoor Air Quality Conference. Presents the results of
surveys, on the occupants of three buildings with underfloor systems allowing
user-controls, in order to argue the case for designers, owners and managers
considering a broader range of user-responsive systems.
64. Drake, P., P. Mill, Hartkopf, V., Loftness, V., Dubin, F., Zigara, G.,
Posner, J. 1991. "Strategies for health promotion through user-based
environmental control: a select international perspective." Proceedings,
ASHRAE Indoor Air Quality Conference.
65. Ellison, J., and B. Ramsey. 1989. "Access flooring: comfort and
convenience can be cost-justified." Building Design & Construction,
66. Energy Design Resources. 2000. "Underfloor air distribution offers
energy efficiency and much more!" eNews for Designers, Issue 18, October
67. Engineering Interface Limited, 1993. "Personal control and 100%
outside-air ventilation for office buildings." Report prepared for
Efficiency and Alternative Energy Technology Branch, CANMET, Canada.
68. Faulkner, D., W.J. Fisk, and D.P. Sullivan. 1993. "Indoor air flow
and pollutant removal in a room with desktop ventilation." ASHRAE
Transactions, Vol. 99, Pt. 2.
69. Faulkner, D., W.J. Fisk, and D.P. Sullivan. 1995. "Indoor air flow
and pollutant removal in a room with floor-based task ventilation: results of
additional experiments." Building and Environment, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp.
323-332. This laboratory study on the determinants of indoor air flow patterns
with a floor-based task ventilation system discusses relationships between
average age of air, the supply-air's piston-like flow pattern and height.
Experimental variables include intra-room transport of tobacco smoke particles
(produced mechanically), supply-air flow rate, temperature, direction and
internal heat loads; measured using a tracer gas procedure.
70. Faulkner, D., W.J. Fisk, D.P. Sullivan, and D.P. Wyon. 1999
"Ventilation efficiencies of desk-mounted task/ambient conditioning
systems." Indoor Air, No. 9, pp. 273-281. Outlines required outdoor air
content, supply airflow rate and direction for optimum values of air exchange
effectiveness and pollution removal efficiency in the breathing zone of heated
manikins with desk-mounted air outlets.
71. Faulkner, D., W.J. Fisk, D.P. Sullivan, and S.M. Lee. 2002.
"Ventilation efficiencies of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation
system." Proceedings of Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, 30 June - 5 July
72. Federspiel, C.C., G. Liu, M. Lahiff, D. Faulkner, D. Dibartolomeo, W.J.
Fisk, P. Price, and D. Sullivan. 2002. "Indoor environmental effects on
work performance." Proceedings of Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, June 30 -
73. Fisk, W.J., D. Faulkner, D. Pih, P. McNeel, F. Bauman, and E. Arens.
1991. "Indoor air flow and pollutant removal in a room with task
ventilation." Indoor Air, No. 3, pp. 247-262.
74. Fisk, W.J. and Faulkner, D. 1992. "Air exchange effectiveness in
office buildings: Measurement techniques and results." Proceedings, 1992
International Symposium on Room Air Convection and Ventilation Effectiveness,
July 22-24, Tokyo, pp. 213-223, published by ASHRAE, Atlanta.
75. Fisk, W.J., Faulkner, D., Sullivan, D., and Bauman, F. 1997. "Air
change effectiveness and pollutant removal efficiency during adverse mixing
conditions." Indoor Air 7: 55-63.
76. Fisk, W. J. 2000. "Health and productivity gains from better indoor
environments and their relationship with building energy efficiency."
LBNL-45484, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, July 31.
77. Fisk, W.J., P. Price, D. Faulkner, D. Sullivan, D. Dibartolomeo, C.
Federspiel, G. Liu, and M. Lahiff. 2002. "Productivity and ventilation
rate: Analyses of time-series data for a group of call center workers."
Proceedings of Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, June 30 - July 5.
78. Fountain, M.E., and E.A. Arens. 1993. "Air movement and thermal
comfort." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 35, No. 8, August, pp. 26-30.
79. Fountain, M.E. 1993. "Locally controlled air movement preferred in
warm environments." Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Architecture,
University of California, Berkeley, November, 196 pp. This research
dissertation focuses on air movement at ambient and cooler-than-ambient
temperatures, examining the transition between desirable cooling and
uncomfortable draft and proposing a percent of satisfied people model as a
function of air movement in warm conditions. Experiments include the use of a
thermal manikin exposed to a range of air velocities from floor- and
desk-mounted air diffusers; and human subjects exposed to the same conditions
but given control of the air supply velocity.
80. Fountain, M., E. Arens, R. de Dear, F. Bauman, and K. Miura. 1994.
"Locally controlled air movement preferred in warm isothermal
environments." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 100, Pt. 2, 14 pp. A condensed
version of the previous dissertation.
81. Fujita, H., and Sakai, K. 1996. "Room air temperature profiles in
underfloor air distribution system." Proceedings, Indoor Air 1996. The
proposed model for estimating room air temperature profiles and flow patterns
indicates the significant relationship between heat- and temperature-profiles,
and the need for accurate measurements of heat loads.
82. Fukao, H., Oguro, M., Hiwatashi, K., Ichihara, M. 1996.
"Environment evaluation in an office with floor-based air-conditioning
system in an office building." Proceedings, 5th International Conference
on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '96, Yokohama, Japan. Presents the
results of field measurements and a survey questionnaire concerning the thermal
environment in an office building employing both floor- and ceiling-based
systems. Significant differences were observed only for air particle
concentrations. Includes a graphical analysis of thermal sensations over
different parts of the human body.
83. Fukao, H., M. Oguro, M. Ichihara, and S. Tanabe. 2002. "Comparison
of underfloor versus overhead air distribution systems in an office
building." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 108, No. 1.
84. Genter, R.E. 1989. "Air distribution for raised floor
offices." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 95, Pt. 2.
85. Greenheck. 2002. Product information. Greenheck, Schofield, WI,
86. GSA. 1992. "GSA access floor study." U.S. General Services
Administration, Washington, D.C., E.B. Commission No. 7211-911C, September 10.
This report presents a detailed 25 year Present Value Analysis, and study, of
the use of access floor systems in GSA office facilities with the aim of
determining the best value for open plan offices. Useful and comprehensive for
comparative means -in addition to studying three different access floor
systems, the analysis considers both steel and concrete framed building
87. Guttmann, S. 2000. "Raising the bar, with raised floors."
Consulting-Specifying Engineer, October.
88. Hanzawa, H., and Y. Nagasawa. 1990. "Thermal comfort with
underfloor air-conditioning systems." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Pt. 2.
Presents the results of experiments, carried out in a test chamber with human
occupants, measuring the subjective perception of supply air flow from a floor
outlet. Conclusions of a low draft risk with underfloor air systems are based
on the draft charts of Fanger et al (1988).
89. Hanzawa, H., Nagasawa, Y., and Mortyama, T., 1993 "Field
measurements of thermal comfort in occupied zones of buildings installed with
under-floor air-conditioning systems." Proceedings, Room Air Convection
and Ventilation Effectiveness, ASHRAE 1993. From field measurements of 2 office
buildings with underfloor air conditioning systems, looking at room air
temperatures, air velocities and responses to questionnaires on air movement
and drafts, this paper concludes that internal conditions are comfortable
according to standard thermal indexes.
90. Hanzawa, H., and M. Higuchi. 1996. "Air flow distribution in a
low-height underfloor air distribution plenum of an air conditioning
system." AIJ Journal Technological Design, No.3, pp 200-205, December.
This paper presents the results of experiments with scale models of underfloor
plenums, investigating the characteristics, observed problems, and possible
countermeasures, of air flow within low height plenums. Experimental parameters
included varying air supply inlet number and type, obstacles and guide vanes
within the plenum. In conclusion, low height pressurized plenums are found to
be feasible within an optimum range of floor area per outlet ratio.
91. Harris, L., and Associates. 1989. Office environment index 1989. Grand
Rapids, MI: Steelcase, Inc.
92. Hartman, T. 1993. "New zone controls help achieve total
environmental quality." Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning, Nov. 1993.
93. Hasegawa, K., 1991. "Installation example of the personal air
conditioning in USA - Johnson Controls Inc.'s office" Journal of the
Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.65,
94. Hawataik Han, Kwang-Seop Chung, Kyung-Jin Jang 1999. "Thermal and
ventilation characteristics in a room with underfloor air-conditioning
system" Proceedings, Indoor Air '99, Edinburgh, Scotland. Outlines the
results of testing in a conference room with underfloor air-conditioning,
including measurements of horizontal and vertical room air temperature
distributions, CO2 concentrations and infra-red imaging of temperature
distributions over a person standing on a floor-based supply outlet.
95. Hedge, A., A. Michael, and S. Parmelee. 1992. "Reactions of
facilities managers and office workers to underfloor task air
ventilation." Journal of Architectural Planning and Research. This paper
presents results from field study surveys of user reaction to underfloor
systems as compared to overhead ventilation in their previous workplaces, the
1st survey of this kind in the USA. Results are presented with consideration of
human factors and ergonomics and discussion as to why occupants control is
often voted a primary benefit, yet rarely exercised.
96. Heinemeier, K.E., G. E. Schiller, and C.C. Benton. 1990. "Task
conditioning for the workplace: issues and challenges." ASHRAE
Transactions, Vol. 96, Pt. 2.
97. Heinemeier, K.E., G. Brager, C. Benton, F. Bauman, and E. Arens. 1991.
"Task/ambient conditioning systems in open-plan offices: assessment of a
new technology." Center for Environmental Design Research, University of
California, Berkeley, September. Early commentary on the level of knowledge
regarding task/ambient conditioning and identification of specific issues
needing further research at the start of the 90s. The detailed analysis of
system principles, strategies and the affect of task/ambient systems on comfort
and energy use, remains relevant to present day applications.
98. HGA. 2002. "ADC World Headquarters & Technology Campus."
Hammel, Green and Abrahamson, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.
99. Hibiya Sogo Setsubi Corporation, 1993. "Floor-based air supply HVAC
system design manual." Design Manual 1993
100. Hisaki, H., S. Kanno, Y. Kayahara, M. Mizuno, Y. Nakamura, M. Okubo,
and K. Ueda. 1991. "Installation example of a radiant personal air
conditioning system for automated offices - Kobe harborland area." SHASE
Journal, Special Edition: Personal Air Conditioning, Vol. 65, No. 7. Tokyo: The
Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Engineers of Japan. Early
case study on the application of an underfloor system with both floor- and
101. Hockman, R. 2002. Personal communication. Tate Access Floors, Inc.,
102. Hosni, M.H., B.W. Jones, and H. Xu. 1999. "Experimental results
for heat gain and radiant/convective split from equipment in buildings."
ASHRAE Transactions, 105 (1).
103. Houghton, D. 1995. "Turning air conditioning on its head:
underfloor air distribution offers flexibility, comfort, and efficiency."
E Source Tech Update TU-95-8, E Source, Inc., Boulder, CO, August, 16 pp. A
good general summary of underfloor air distribution systems, providing an
objective overview of the technology -both the benefits and potential
drawbacks, including advice on how to avoid them, are presented. Sections
include an outline of different system types, economic appraisal, market
trends, products and manufacturers, all well illustrated with graphics and
104. IFMA. 1997. Benchmark III. International Facility Management
Association, Houston, TX.
105. Imagawa, N. and T. Mima. 1991. "Installation example of an all air
system: Fujita headquarters building." SHASE Journal, Special Edition:
Personal Air Conditioning, Vol. 65, No. 7. Tokyo: The Society of Heating,
Air-Conditioning, and Sanitary Engineers of Japan (in Japanese).
106. Int-Hout, D. 1998. "Air distribution for comfort and IAQ."
HPAC Engineering, March, pp. 59-70.
107. Int-Hout, D. 2001. "Pressurized Plenum Access Floor - Design
Manual." Carrier, November. An overview of issues and design
considerations, this manual includes history, basic concepts, advantages of the
system, design considerations, design challenges, a summary of current research
and the Carrier approach.
108. ISO. 1994. International Standard 7730. "Moderate thermal
environments -- Determination of the PMV and PPD indices and specification of
the conditions for thermal comfort." Geneva: International Standards
109. Ito, H., Nakahara, N. "Simplified calculation model of room air
temperature profile in underfloor air-conditioning system." Proceedings,
Room Air Convection and Ventilation Effectiveness, ASHRAE 1993. Using this
simplified calculation model a close correlation between calculated and
measured vertical temperature distributions indicated a level of accuracy
suitable for use in HVAC design applications and that variations in room
dimensions have little influence on room air temperature profiles.
110. Iwamoto, S., 1999 "A study on numerical prediction method of
indoor environment including human body." Proceedings, International
Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '99 The author compares two
numerical methods of calculating a three-dimensional model of air flow and
temperature around an occupants body, based on a curvilinear coordinate system.
The detailed predictions possible with such models are necessary when
evaluating personal (task-ambient) conditioning installations.
111. Johnson Controls. 2002. Product information. Johnson Controls,
Milwaukee, WI, www.jci.com.
112. Kaczmarczyk, J., Q. Zeng, A. Melikov, and P.O. Fanger. 2002.
"Individual control and people's preferences in an experiment with a
personalized ventilation system." Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen,
Denmark, 8-11 September 2002.
113. Karvonen, A. 2001. "The revolution is underfoot."
Environmental Design and Construction, January/February. An overview of
underfloor air systems, this article presents its history, system mechanics,
benefits, barriers, and resources for a less specialized audience in the
114. Kight, D. 1992. "Epson flexes its technological muscles."
Facilities Design and Management, February. General case study on Epson's
corporate headquarters building in Torrance, California, at its time one of the
largest applications of an underfloor air distribution system in America.
Includes a description of the access floor and task air modules.
115. Kim, I.G., Homma, H. 1992. "Possibility for increasing ventilation
efficiency with upward ventilation." ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin. Vol.
8, No. 2. The results of experiments comparing upward and downward ventilation
systems, in an office-like test space with human occupants, indicate changes in
room CO2 content are less affected by upward then downward ventilation. This
paper also concludes ventilation rates for removing occupant produced
contaminants in the breathing zone can be low providing supply air temperatures
are less than room air temperatures.
116. Kim, I.G., Homma, H. 1992 "Distribution and ventilation efficiency
of CO2 produced by occupants in upward and downward ventilated rooms."
ASHRAE Technical Data Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 2. This paper expands on the
results of the previous experiments by the authors (see reference above) to
include a more detailed analysis of factor influencing efficient removal of CO2
content from a room such as occupant produced metabolic heat, and CO2
117. Kim, Y., K. Lee, and H. Cho. 2001. "Experimental Study of Flow
Characteristics of a Diffuser for Under Floor Air-Conditioning System."
ASHRAE Transactions, Vol 107, Pt. 1. In this study a new diffuser for the
underfloor air conditioning system is developed and flow characteristics for
isothermal conditions are studied. The new diffuser consists of two sections-an
internal section for generating swirl flow and an edge section for vertical
flow. The study concludes that the new diffuser has desirable characteristics.
118. Kohyama, M., Mizuno, M., Nakamura, Y., Sekimoto, Y., Akagi, K.,
Kunimatsu, Y., Otaka, K. 1996. "Field measurements of the indoor
environment of an office with a task-ambient air conditioning system."
Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms,
ROOMVENT '96, Yokohama, Japan. Evaluation of a computer center equipped with
conventional ceiling outlets in ambient areas, occupant controlled floor
outlets in task areas. Outlines differences in room air temperatures between
the two zones and the need to consider varying occupant activity levels of
workers when setting task area temperatures.
119. Konishi, H., Hanzawa, H., Higuchi, M., 1996. "Study on occupied
zone air conditioning system using seats." Proceedings 5th International
conference on air distribution in rooms, ROOMVENT 1996. A study of the
characteristics of air flow velocities and temperature distributions around the
human body using typical auditorium/theater seats fed with supply air from
below the seat. Of interest for highlighting alternative applications of
personal conditioning underfloor air supply systems.
120. Krepchin, I. 2001. "Underfloor air systems gain foothold in North
America." E Source Report. ER-01-1, Boulder, CO: Financial Times Energy,
Inc., January. Presents market information. Report includes sections with
headings, "The Market Expands," "Why is the Market
Growing?", "What Challenges Remain?" as well as an appendix of
manufacturers and buildings using underfloor air.
121. Kroll, K. 2001. "Customer Driven Real Estate: Fisher Properties
wants to find better ways to serve tenants' need for speed and flexibility. One
step is to let them leave on 30 days notice." Building Operating
Management, May. Underfloor Air Distribution is cited as a way in which
buildings can be flexible to accommodate different tenants.
122. Kroner, W. J. Stark-Martin, and T Willemain. 1992. "Using advanced
office technology to increase productivity: the impact of environmentally
responsive workstations (ERWs) on productivity and worker attitude." The
Center for Architectural Research, Rensselaer, Troy, NY. An in-depth case study
on the ERWs with individualised controls, installed in the new West Bend Mutual
Insurance Headquarters, Wisconsin. Useful as a reference for its range of
subjective assessment and measurement techniques, and means of internal
123. Kwang-Seop Chung, Hwa-Taik Han, Chang-Geun Cho, Sung-Hoon Kong, Min-Kwan
Cho, 1999. "A study on the characteristics of indoor environment and
comfort in office building with underfloor air-conditioning (UFAC) system.
Proceedings, Indoor Air '99, Edinburgh, Scotland. Physical measurements
indicated noise levels from floor terminal units served by a fan powered air
supply are overcome by typical background office noise, and recorded
contaminant levels are cited as much lower than those for a conventional
ceiling supply system as measured by another research team.
124. Ky-Bum Jeong and Jong-Jin Kim, 1999. "Individual air distribution
control system on partition panel at personal task area". Proceedings,
Indoor Air '99, Edinburgh, Scotland. This paper investigates the optimum
location of outlets for occupant comfort within a personal task area,
concluding that location is the most critical factor in improving supply air
125. Lee, H., and F. Bauman. In press. "Development of an Air Leakage
Test Methodology for Underfloor Plenums." To be submitted to ASHRAE
126. Levy, H. 2002. "Individual Control by Individual VAV."
Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8-11 September 2002. This
paper presents a study on "sensible cooling" through varying air
velocity (VAV) through personal air outlets adjustable by occupants. The paper
concludes that the system tested and described in the paper "will air
condition individual people instead of the building" and will
"eliminate dissatisfaction with thermal conditions.
127. Lin Y.-J., and P.F. Linden. 2002. "Modeling an underfloor air
distribution system." Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark,
8-11 September 2002.
128. Livchak, A., and D. Nall. 2001. "Displacement ventilation -
Application for hot and humid climate." Proceedings, Clima 2000/Napoli
2001 World Congress, Naples, Italy, 15-18 September 2001.
129. Loftness, V., P. Mathew, G. Gardner, C. Mondor, T. Paul, R. Yates, and
M. Dellana. 1999. "Sustainable Development Alternatives for Speculative
Office Buildings: A Case Study of the Soffer Tech Office Building. Final
Report." Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Carnegie Mellon
University, Pittsburgh, PA. This 38 page report documents the analysis of
sustainable design alternatives for the Tech Office Building. Raised floor for
HVAC and networking is included along with 13 other sustainable alternatives
such as fašade glazing and shading, roof insulation, lighting, energy
130. Loftness, V., R. Brahme, M. Mondazzi, E. Vineyard, and M. MacDonald.
2002. "Energy savings potential of flexible and adaptive HVAC distribution
systems for office buildings - Final report." Air Conditioning and
Refrigeration Technology Institute 21-CR Research Project 605-30030, June. Full
report available at www.arti-21cr.org/research/completed/index.html. This paper
documents the performance of recent developments in flexible and adaptive
distribution systems in office buildings, and also documents the barriers and
opportunities for both industry and professional practice in the development of
innovative, flexible and adaptive HVAC distribution systems.
131. Loomans, M.G.L.C., and P.G.S. Rutten, 1997. "Task conditioning +
displacement ventilation, 1+1>2? Proceedings, Healthy Buildings/IAQ 1997,
Vol. 2. Washington, D.C. Full scale measurements and CFD simulations in an
office configuration with desk-based displacement ventilation conclude the
micro/macro climate distinction, an underlying principle of TAC systems, is
less pronounced than desired and open to improvement.
132. Loomans, M.G.L.C., van Mook, F.J.R. and Rutten, P.G.S. 1996. "The
introduction of the desk displacement ventilation concept." Proceedings,
5th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '96,
133. Loudermilk, K., 1999. "Underfloor air distribution solutions for
open office applications." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 105, Pt. 1. This
paper outlines underfloor air distribution systems' design and operation
criteria for optimizing performance and minimizing costs. Includes a useful
description of temperature distributions and zone differentiation within a
room, and tables for sensible heat gain analysis.
134. Mass, D., 1998. "Underfloor air still an underused tool."
Facilities Design and Management, December.
135. Matsunawa, K., H. Iizuka, and S. Tanabe. 1995. "Development and
application of an underfloor air conditioning system with improved outlets for
a smart building in Tokyo." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 101, Pt. 2.
136. Maybaum, M. 1999. "A breath of fresh air: the air side of HVAC
systems offers overlooked opportunities to reduce costs and improve IAQ."
Building Operating Management, January. This paper discusses advances on the
"air side" of HVAC design, including low temperature air
distribution, demand controlled ventilation, filtration choices, sizing for
real-world demand, and underfloor air distribution.
137. McCarry, B.T. 1995. "Underfloor air distribution systems: benefits
and when to use the system in building design." ASHRAE Transactions, 1995
v. 101, Pt.2. This paper addresses the optimum context and application for
underfloor air distribution systems. Illustrated with reference to three
buildings in Vancouver, Canada, the discussion addresses design, mechanical
systems issues, potential benefits and where the use of an underfloor air
system is, or is not, appropriate.
138. McCarry, B.T. 1998. "Innovative underfloor system." ASHRAE
Journal, March. Case study of a library building in Vancouver featuring a
low-pressure underfloor air distribution system. The financial and operational
success of the system exemplifies the potential for underfloor applications
outside the genre of office buildings.
139. McQuillen, D. 2001. "3 case studies for improved IAQ."
Environmental Design + Construction, posted 1/24/2001, www.edcmag.com.
140. Melikov, A.K., R. Cermak, and M. Majer. 2002. "Personalized
ventilation: Evaluation of different air terminal devices." Energy and
Buildings, Vol. 34, pp. 829-836.
141. Mundt, E. 1990. "Convection flows above common heat sources in
rooms with displacement ventilation. Proceedings, ROOMVENT 1990, Oslo, Norway.
142. Murakami, S., Kato, S., Tanaka, T., Choi, D.-H., Kitazawa, T. 1992.
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Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 2.
143. Muratani, H., 1991. "Office facilities institute, the latest
analysis of corporate office environment and personalization." Journal of
the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.
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144. Nagoya University. 1994. Proceedings, International Symposium:
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145. Nailor Industries. 2002. Product information. Nailor Industries,
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146. Nakahara, N., and H. Ito. 1993a. "Prediction of mixing energy loss
in a simultaneously heated and cooled room: part 1 -- experimental analyses of
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147. Nakahara, N., and H. Ito. 1993b. "Prediction of mixing energy loss
in a simultaneously heated and cooled room: part 2 -- simulation analyses on
seasonal loss." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 99, Pt. 1, pp. 115-128.
148. Nakamura, Y., Mizuno, M., Sekimoto, Y., Akagi, K., Kunimatu, Y., Otaka,
K., Kohyama, M. 1996. "Study on thermal comfort and energy conservation of
task-ambient air conditioning system." Proceedings, 5th International
Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '96, Yokohama, Japan. A
comparative study of three air conditioning systems (conventional, underfloor
and task/ambient) including measurements of temperature distributions within
the 360░ horizontal plane surrounding an occupant, with floor outlets both on
149. Nakamura, Y., Mizuno, M., Ueno, O., Sekimoto, Y., Akagi, K., Mishima,
Okata, K., Kohyama, M. 1998. "Study on thermal comfort conditions of
task-ambient air conditioning system." Proceedings, International
Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, ROOMVENT '98, Vol. 1, June 6,
Stockholm. This study investigated the most suitable floor outlet supply-air
conditions in which sedentary occupants are comfortable. Experiments with human
subjects, who were able to control their supply air volume and direction, found
most subjects directed the supply jet towards their bodies, for cooling within
the optimum temperature range, whether the air flow hit them directly or not.
150. Nielsen, P.V. 1996. Displacement Ventilation - Theory and Design.
Department of Building Technology and Structural Engineering, Aalborg
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151. NFPA. 1999. NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning
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152. Oguro, M., H. Fukao, M. Ichihara, Y. Kobayashi, and N. Maehara. 1995.
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Environmental Conditioning in Asia. Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 16-18
March. Comparative field measurements, and a questionnaire on thermal comfort
and indoor air quality, for a building with both underfloor- and ceiling-based
air conditioning systems conclude little difference in the resulting thermal
environments of each, but air particle concentration was significantly less
with the underfloor system.
153. Okamoto, A., 1991. "Thermal performance of thermoelectric terminal
cooling and heating panel." Journal of the Society of Heating,
Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.65, No.7 1991
154. Paciuk, M. 1989. "The role of personal control of the environment
in thermal comfort and satisfaction at the workplace." Doctoral
dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Department of Architecture.
155. PECI. 2002. Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. website: www.peci.org.
PECI, Portland, OR.
156. Pedersen, C.O., D.E. Fisher, J.D. Spitler, and R.J. Liesen. 1998.
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Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
157. Persily, A.K. 1986. "Ventilation effectiveness measurements in an
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158. Persily, A.K. and Dols, W.S. 1989. "Field measurements of
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159. Portland General Electric. 2002. "Earth AdvantageÖ/Building
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Portland General Electric, Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency
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160. Post, N.M. 1993. "Smart buildings make good sense."
Engineering News Record, May 17. This article discusses intelligent buildings,
how the building profession regards the technology and what exactly constitutes
a 'smart' building. Issues raised are illustrated with reference to buildings
featuring intelligent systems and advances made in the field since the '80s.
161. Price Industries. 2002. Product information. Price Industries, Suwanee,
162. REHVA. 2001. Displacement Ventilation in Non-Industrial Premises (H.
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163. Rock, B., and D. Zhu. 2001. A Designers Guide to Conventional
Ceiling-Based Room Air Diffusion. Atlanta: ASHRAE, Inc.
164. Rowlinson, D., and D.J. Croome. 1987. "Supply characteristics of
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Ventilated Spaces, Session 1, 10-12 June, Stockholm.
165. Sandberg, M., and C. Blomqvist. 1989. "Displacement ventilation
systems in office rooms." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 95, Part 2.
166. Schiller, G., E. Arens, F. Bauman, C. Benton, M. Fountain, and T.
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office buildings." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 94, Pt. 2.
167. Seem, J.E., and J. Braun. 1992. "The impact of personal
environmental control on building energy use." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol.
98, Pt. 1. This paper compares the energy use characteristics of personal
environmental control (PEC) systems and conventional HVAC systems, concluding
the benefits of increased staff productivity outweigh costs in other areas.
168. SHASE. 1991. "Special edition: personal air conditioning."
SHASE Journal., Vol. 65, No. 7. Tokyo: The Society of Heating,
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169. Shinkai, K., A. Kasuya, M. Kato. 2000. "Performance Evaluation of
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paper describes results regarding the peak shaving by a floor thermal storage
system in designing the air conditioning system for an officially recognized
"environmentally conscious building No. 1" for the Osaka gas company.
170. Shute, R.W. 1992. "Integrated access floor HVAC." ASHRAE
Transactions, Vol. 98, Pt. 1. An overview of the evolution of floor based HVAC,
presented as a case study of the six year development period of an office
project in Toronto, Canada. Discusses in detail two variations each of
compartmentalized and centralized systems, concluding with comprehensive design
guidelines and constructional coordination issues based on the experiences of
the office project.
171. Shute, R.W. 1995. "Integrated access floor HVAC: Lessons
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172. Skistad, H. 1994. Displacement Ventilation. Taunton, Somerset, England:
Research Studies Press Ltd.
173. Sodec, F. 1984. Air distribution systems report no. 3554A. Aachen, West
Germany: Krantz GmbH & Co., Sept. 19. Comprehensive report from
manufacturers of 'environmental technology' products, written in the early days
of underfloor air systems. Subjects covered range from characteristics of
indoor air flow to admissible sound pressure levels, for example. The
information-rich sections include experimental results, technical diagrams and
174. Sodec, F., and R. Craig. 1990. "The underfloor air supply system
-- the European experience." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Part 2.
175. Sodec, F., and R. Craig. 1991. Underfloor air supply system: guidelines
for the mechanical engineer. Report No. 3787A. Aachen, West Germany: Krantz
GmbH & Co., January. Although covering issues relevant for all designers,
the language used, and level of knowledge assumed of the reader, is targeted
towards mechanical engineers. Discussion ranges from technical data for twist
outlets, to control zones to maintenance of room humidity and underfloor air as
a fire or smoke hazard.
176. Spoormaker, H.J. 1990. "Low-pressure underfloor HVAC system."
ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, Part 2. This paper presents a case study of the
development and operation of a low-pressure underfloor air conditioning system
as installed in a South African office building in the early '80s. Includes
useful classifications of levels of flexibility, durability, reliability and
maintainability for HVAC systems, and a schematic description of a low-pressure
underfloor HVAC system.
177. Stanke, D. and B. Bradley. 2001. "Turning air distribution upside
down: underfloor air distribution." TRANE engineers newsletter, Vol. 30,
No. 4. An overview for those not familiar with underfloor air, this article
touches on floor choices, air distribution options, approaches to design,
potential advantages, and "growing pains."
178. Suwa, T., 1991. "Installation example of an underfloor air
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Journal of the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of
Japan, Vol.65, No.7 1991 Case study of an underfloor system application
featuring custom designed floor outlets, each equipped with a 50W fan unit and
control mechanisms (manual and automatic).
179. Svensson, A.G.L. 1989. "Nordic experiences of displacement
ventilation systems." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 95, Part 2.
180. Tamblyn, R.T. 1995. "Toward zero complaints for office air
conditioning." Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning, March. This article cites
100% outside air systems and personal control of air temperature and motion as
two possibilities for reducing occupant dissatisfaction with their office
environments, and discusses the means by which both can be operated without
undue increase in initial or operating costs. The hypothetical design of an
office building with these systems is used to illustrate the report.
181. Tamblyn, R.T. 1995. "Toward zero complaint in air conditioning
systems." Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Indoor Air Quality,
Ventilation, and Energy Conservation in Buildings. Centre for Building Studies,
Concordia University, Montreal, May 9. A study determining the microclimate
conditions, and associated occupant responses, created by a ceiling mounted
vertical air jet conditioning system, with occupant controlled thermostat,
installed in an office building in New York. The results of this zero-complaint
system are useful for concluding the level of individual control offered over
temperature and air motion overrides issues of air quality, temperature and
system performance in determining levels of occupant satisfaction.
182. Tanabe, S., 1991. "Role of personal air conditioning in office
environmental quality." Journal of the Society of Heating,
Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.65, No.7 1991
183. Tanabe, S. 1994. "Thermal comfort aspects of underfloor air
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184. Tanabe, S., E. Arens, F. Bauman, H. Zhang, and T. Madsen. 1994.
"Evaluating thermal environments by using a thermal manikin with
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1, 10 pp.
185. Tanabe, S., and K. Kimura. 1996. "Comparisons of ventilation
performance and thermal comfort among displacement, underfloor and ceiling
based air distribution systems by experiments in a real sized office
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comparative measurements, carried out in a test chamber with a thermal manikin,
of contaminant concentrations, age of air and thermal comfort resulting from
each of the three system types. Includes an analysis of local skin temperatures
over various parts of the thermal manikin, highlighting differences in the
non-uniform thermal environments created by each air-conditioning system.
186. Tanago, H., and M. Takeda. 1991. "Experimental verification of
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187. Tanago, H., 1991. "Experimental estimation of personal air
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Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Vol.65, No.7 1991
188. Tanaka, H. 1991. "Types and features of personal air
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air conditioning systems. Written at an early stage in the development of this
technology but still useful for the detail and scope of issues addressed.
189. TAK and Takenaka Corporation. 1993. "Design and practice of
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190. Tate Access Floors, Inc. 2002. "Building Technology Platform« --
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191. Tate Access Floors. 2002. Product information. Tate Access Floors,
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192. Terranova, J. 2001. "Underfloor Ventilation: Raised-floor air
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article written for design engineers presents pros and cons of raised-floor
systems for office space, a cost analysis, and general design considerations.
193. Trox. 1997. "Building design optimization with underfloor air
distribution in the San Francisco area." Trox USA, Alpharetta, GA. One of
the most comprehensive collection of papers on underfloor air distribution
available. Provides the latest information and guidelines on many aspects
including office space optimization, comparisons of overhead and underfloor
systems, load analysis, design considerations and a review of competitors'
systems. Each topic is illustrated with test results, calculations (e.g. space
heat gain), charts (e.g. psychrometric) and a process analysis.
194. Trox. 1998. "Economics of raised access floors with underfloor air
for office space environments." Trox Technik Technical Bulletin TB080498,
Trox USA, Alpharetta, GA. A recent, comprehensive cost analysis of underfloor
versus conventional (poke through and cellular deck) systems covering issues
within constructional, operational and relocation costs. Useful data although
provided by a party with vested interests.
195. Trox USA. 2002. Product Information. Trox USA, Alpharetta, GA,
196. TRW FAA SETA, 1995. "FAA SETA Raised floor trade study."
Draft Prepared for the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), this report compares
single-layer and triple-layer raised floor systems to determine the optimum
type for FAA facilities. A comprehensive study covering many issues from
implications for electrical layouts to lifecycle costing to environmental
control, for example. A good source of information on an alternative raised
floor configuration about which little is published despite examples of use
cited dating from the report ('95) back to 1984.
197. Tsuzuki, K., E.A. Arens, F.S. Bauman, and D.P. Wyon. 1999.
"Individual thermal comfort control with desk-mounted and floor-mounted
task/ambient conditioning (TAC) systems." Proceedings of Indoor Air '99,
Edinburgh, Scotland, 8-13 August. This paper outlines experiments comparing
three TAC systems (two desk-based, one floor-based) in terms of their effect on
heat loss from a thermal mannequin at various room temperatures. Results
indicate such systems are capable of considerably influencing control over the
heat balance of an occupant.
198. Tuddenham, D. 1986. "A floor-based approach." ASHRAE Journal,
199. Vranicar, M. 2002. Personal communication. Critchfield Mechanical,
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200. Warson, A. 1990. "The pin-striped office." Canadian Building,
201. Webster, T., et al. 1999-2002. "UFAD Project Profiles."
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202. Webster, Tom, E. Ring, and F. Bauman. 2000. "Supply fan energy use
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Environment, University of California, Berkeley, CA. This preliminary study
examines the impact of various design assumptions on the fan energy consumption
of pressurized underfloor plenum systems, compared to traditional overhead
constant-air-volume and variable-air-volume systems.
203. Webster, T., F. Bauman, and J. Reese. 2002-a. "Underfloor air
distribution: Thermal stratification." ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 44, No. 5,
May, pp. 28-36. This article describes the idea of stratification, whose
control and optimization is crucial for system design of underfloor systems.
This article focuses on practical implications of room air stratification
testing results for the control and operation of constant air volume and
variable air volume UFAD systems.
204. Webster, T., F. Bauman, J. Reese, and M. Shi. 2002-b. "Thermal
stratification performance of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems."
Proceedings of Indoor Air 2002, Monterey, CA, 30 June - 5 July 2002. This paper
presents tests to "determine the impact of room airflow and supply air
temperature (SAT) on the thermal stratification in interior spaces, and the
effect of blinds in perimeter spaces for UFAD systems." Results are
outlined and discussed.
205. Webster, T., R. Bannon, and D. Lehrer. 2002-c. "Teledesic
Broadband Center." Center for the Built Environment, University of
California, Berkeley, CA, April.
206. Weiner, P.C. 1994. "Time to look again at desktop control."
Architectural Record, May.
207. Wright, G. 1996. "The underfloor air alternative." Building
Design and Construction, November.
208. Wyon, D.P. 1988. "Ventilated floor systems with independent room
air terminals as the basis of a healthy office environment." Proceedings,
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209. Wyon, D.P. 1989. "The use of thermal manikins in environmental
ergonomics. Scand. J. Work, Env. Health, 15 (Supplement), pp. 84-94.
210. Wyon, D.P., and M. Sandberg. 1990. "Thermal manikin prediction of
discomfort due to displacement ventilation." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96,
211. Wyon, D.P. 1994a. "Thermal gradients, individual differences and
air quality." Proceedings, Healthy Buildings '94, Vol. 2, pp. 765-770,
212. Wyon, D.P. 1994b. "Current indoor climate problems and their
possible solution." Indoor Environment 1994:3:123-129.
213. Wyon, D.P. 1996. "Individual microclimate control: required range,
probable benefits and current feasibility." Proceedings, Indoor Air '96,
July 21-26, Nagoya, Japan. Based on experimental data, this paper provides new
estimates of required temperature ranges of individual control systems
necessary to ensure comfort for a given proportion of a group. Includes
estimates of the degree to which fan noise could be increased in order to
extend the range of individual thermal and air quality control without
increasing occupant dissatisfaction; and discussion as to the effects of
individual control on group average productivity.
214. Yamanaka, T., R. Satoh, and H. Kotani. 2002. "Vertical
distribution of contaminant concentration in rooms with floor-supply
displacement ventilation." Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen,
Denmark, 8-11 September 2002.
215. Ylvisaker, P. 1990. "Underfloor Air Delivery: An Ergonomic
Frontier?" Buildings: The Facilities Construction and Management Magazine,
216. Yokoyama, K., and T. Inoue. 1991. "Thermal environment with
underfloor air-conditioning system." Proceedings, ASHRAE IAQ '91, Healthy
Buildings. Evaluation of a low-pressure underfloor system with fan powered
units based on physical testing in a test chamber. Measurements include
contaminant concentration during smoking and subjective experiments on
217. Yokoyama, K., and T. Inoue. 1993. "The application of the
underfloor air-conditioning system." Proceedings, Indoor Air '93,
Helsinki, Finland. An evaluation of the limitations on, and requirements of,
underfloor applications. Considerations include maximum internal heat loads
(uniform and non-uniform), raised floor heights, plenum cable capacities, and
218. Yokoyama, K., and T. Inoue. 1994. "The evaluation of the newly
developed underfloor air-conditioning system." Healthy Buildings '94,
Budapest, Hungary. Test-chamber experiments on three HVAC systems (low-pressure
underfloor, pressurized underfloor and ceiling supply) compare the vertical
distributions of temperature, ventilation efficiency and contaminant removal
effectiveness of each. The results of Yokoyama's previous papers are outlined.
219. York, D. 1998. "Commissioning green buildings: Two Wisconsin case
studies." Proceedings, 6th National Conference on Building Commissioning,
Portland Energy Conservation, Inc.
220. York, T.R. 1993. "Can you afford an intelligent building?" FM
Journal, IFMA, September/October. Although cost values will have changed, this
article is useful as a comparative exercise aiming to prove intelligent
buildings can be built for a cost comparable to traditional buildings. A
breakdown of initial building costs, life cycle cost savings and 5-year life
cycle costs for four different building types (two traditional, two
intelligent, including one with an underfloor air distribution system) is
221. York International. 1999. "York Modular Integrated Terminals:
Convection Enhanced Ventilation - Technical Manual." York International,
York, PA. This manual provides technical descriptions of the differences
between the new technology of floor-based and ceiling-based air distribution
systems, in addition to practical guidelines and recommendations for using the
MIT's and other York products. The user-friendly graphics and wide range of
issues addressed -from psychrometrics to fire codes- make this manufacturer's
manual useful as a general reference text for underfloor air systems.
222. York International. 2002. Product information. York International,
York, PA, www.york.com.
223. Yuan, X., Q. Chen, and L. Glicksman. 1998. A critical review of
displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transactions, 104(1).
224. Yuan, X., Q. Chen, and L. Glicksman. 1999. Performance evaluation and
design guidelines for displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transactions, 105(1).
225. Zeng, Q., J. Kaczmarczyk, A.K. Melikov, and P.O. Fanger. 2002.
"Perceived air quality and thermal sensation with a personalized
ventilation system." Proceedings, ROOMVENT 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 8-11
226. Zhu, J., H. Ito, and N. Nakahara. 1995. "Thermal comfort and
energy saving of a personal air-conditioning system using fluctuating air
movement." Proceedings, 2nd International Conference on Indoor Air
Quality, Ventilation, and Energy Conservation in Buildings. Centre for Building
Studies, Concordia University, Montreal, May 9.
227. Zhu, J., Tanaka, K., Sagara, K., Nakahara, N., 1996. "Performance
evaluation of a task and ambient air-conditioned system using fluctuating air
movement in an actual office space." Proceedings, Indoor Air 1996.